Often someone in the village convinces them to leave and sometimes it’s one member of the family. So the risk is that when they go back home they end up going back to Thailand again.
According to statistics from the International Organization for Migration, 145 human trafficking survivors were returned to Laos in 2010. The majority returned from Thailand and 119 of those were younger than 18.
The country is a source, and to a much lesser extent, a transit and destination country for women and girls who are subjected to trafficking, specifically forced prostitution, the US State Department’s 2010 Trafficking in Persons Report [ http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2010/ ] stated.
Tet* was 14 when she was promised a job in a Thai restaurant. “My friend said we should go but when we got there they took us to a factory to make gloves,” she said.
For the next two years Tet was forced to work in dire conditions. “If I failed to reach the day’s production quota I would receive no food or drink and was sometimes beaten.”
Unable to escape, it was only until another girl managed to run away that the authorities were informed. After 12 months at a transit centre in Thailand, waiting for the judicial process to be completed, Tet returned to Laos.
Under a 2005 Memorandum of Understanding between the Thai and Lao governments, trafficking survivors are repatriated and housed in a government-run transit centre in the Lao capital, Vientiane, for up to seven days before returning to their communities.
Tet spent six months in the AFESIP shelter and learnt to sew. But on her return to her village in southern Laos, the problems began.
“I fulfilled my dream of opening a small sewing shop but after three months there were no customers because people bought ready-made clothes.”
This as a pivotal problem in the reintegration process. After vocational training they might not be able to do what they wanted to and/or they could not manage their business. Sometimes they go back to Thailand and are re-victimized.
Some families rely on income from their children, which is often more lucrative when trafficked than what they can earn in their community.
“She goes back home, opens a shop and the money from the business is not enough for the family. Everything that the family uses has to come from the money that she makes.”.
But Tet’s problems were not just confined to money. On return to her community she also faced possible stigmatization. “I met with my friends… they saw that other people were not talking to me so they thought I wasn’t a good person,” she said.
Such social stigma, according to Tornaghi, can also push women back again.
“But it is a result of a lack of knowledge, people just don’t have information about human trafficking and how traumatic it can be for the victim,” she said.
“If they’ve been trafficked for a long time, of course they change. When she gets back she’s not the same person. That’s a hard thing for the family to accept and for her to accept the family.”